International Journal of Health and Clinical Research 2019-04-16T11:38:30+00:00 James Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal of Health and Clinical Research (IJHCR) is an open-access; freely accessible, online and print monthly peer-reviewed international journal publishes a wide spectrum of advanced research on all medical specialties including ethical and social issues. IJHCR is a gateway to enlighten the latest research/issues happening all around the world of medical and health sciences.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal publishes Original research articles in the form of full-length papers or short communications especially those with multidisciplinary nature. The journal welcomes review articles, mini-reviews, case reports, letter to the editor, guest editorial or commentaries.</p> Retrospective Study of Road Traffic Accident (RTA) Injury Case Profile in North Andhra 2019-04-16T11:37:49+00:00 Mohan Patro P Kodandarao Kuna K. Satyavara Prasad Tejareddy . <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Introduction &amp; background – In the light of increasing rise of vehicular traffic and the accident rate causing great loss to the economy, effective measures have to be taken to control it and to treat the injured victims. Aim – to study the case profile of road traffic accident (RTA) injured patients reported at the trauma care center, King George Hospital (KGH), Visakhapatnam, situated in North Andhra along the National Highway – 5 (NH-5). Material &amp; Methods – it is a study of data related to trauma cases reported at the trauma care center, KGH for the period 2011 – 2018. It is a retrospective study of about 6532 inpatients out of which 3451 are RTA injury cases. And compared with similar studies of other parts of India. Results &amp; discussion - About 10% are IP admissions and death rate ranges from 3 – 4%. 13 – 30% of IP admissions underwent emergency surgery at trauma OT. About 90% are MLC the cases and death rate has been decreasing from 2011 to 2018 even with increasing number of accidents. [23]Alcohol intoxicated cases constitute about 17 – 46%, are high in this study which is about 15% in other studies. Age group involved is 21 – 50 years young driving two wheelers, mostly occurred from 7PM to 1AM in the ratio of 1:3 morning to evening which conforms with other studies. Most of the total trauma cases are due to road traffic accidents followed by cases due to falls. Head injury is the commonest RTA injury followed by poly trauma which includes soft tissue and bone &amp; joint injury. Conclusions - Most fatal accidents are preventable and a comprehensive multi programme approach can mitigate most of them. Cashless treatment policy in emergency trauma victims is obligatory. Controlled incremental release of traffic at junctions can prevent accidents. [18]Helmet and seat belt usage must be made compulsory on state and national highways. L and U road bends must be elimated along highways.De-addiction centers have to be opened at all highway hospitals.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of HIV and HBV and associated risk factors in communal areas: programmatic implications in the peripheral areas of Yaounde 2019-04-16T11:38:10+00:00 Kamga Wouambo Rodrigue Kagoue Simeni Luc Aimé Tchatchouang Serges Philippe Salomon Nguwoh Panka Tchinda Gaelle Mbarawa Marat Kofia Ibrahim Jean-Thierry Ebogo Belobo Lawan Loubou Mohamadou Livo F. Esemu Taheu Ngounouh Christian Fokam Josep <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Background:The prevalence of HIV and HBV infections differs from place to place with few evidence on their risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalenceand risk factors of HIV, HBV in Ottou village, a communal area on the outskirts of Yaounde. Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2018 at “Sainte Monique”, a pediatric and gynecologic health centre. Associations between AIDS and HBV knowledge, demographics, behavior factors and blood transfusionand HIV and HBV infection were analyzed using a Chi-square and Odd ratio.Testswas performed using Epi info 7 withp&lt;0.05, as significance.Results: Among 153 enrolled participants, the median age was 29 years old with interquartile range from 22 to 36 years. The prevalence of HIV, HBVand the co- infection HIV/HBV was respectively 11.11% (17/153), 14.37% (22/153) and1.3% (2/153). We found that females were more infected by HIV than men (13.3% vs. 6.3%). Contrariwise, men were more infected by HBV (16.7% vs. 11.4%) however, the differences were not statistically significant, respectively (p= 0.31; p=0.37). Univariate analysis identified that multiple sexual partners (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 1.17-9.61, p=0.019) and the lack of awareness on HBV (OR 5.96, 95% CI: 1.97-18.07, p=0.0001)were associated risk factors to contracting HBV whereas having multiple sexual partners was the only identifiable risk factor for HIV (OR 7.5,95% CI: 1.65-34.06, P=0.0064). Conclusions:Targeted, tailored, and comprehensive interventions are urgently needed to prevent the HIV and HBV infections in this locality.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibacterial effect of aloe vera gelagainst plaque and caries bacteria: an in-vitro study 2019-04-16T11:38:30+00:00 Suraj Bhaiyana Abhiney Puri Rajat Nangia Nitish x Bhat <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The use of antibiotics has been increasing in the medical field for the control and cure of diseases butwith the increase in antibiotics there is an increasing resistance of antibiotics which has made us to think about various herbal remedies which have lesser or no side effects as compared to their counterpart in chemically manufactured products.Aim: To check the anti-bacterial effect of Aloe Vera gel at different concentrations against plaque and caries bacteria and to compare it with antibiotics (cefexime and ofloaxacin). Methodology:Plaque samples were collected early morning from inter-proximal sites of lower central incisors with sterile curettes including both supra- gingival and sub-gingival plaque.Clinical isolate were then grown in Brain-Heart Infusion broth and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C.Anti-microbial activity of the Aloe Vera Gel was tested by the disc diffusion method.Results:Among the various concentrations of Aloe Vera, the group with Aloe Vera extract at 100% concentration showed the best results but the antibacterial efficancy was lower as considered with cefexime and ofloaxacin. Conclusion:It can be concluded that AloeVera gel can be used as an anti-bacterial agent to prevent and treat some oral infectious diseases such as dental caries, at higher concentration.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT, OPTIMIZATION AND VALIDATION OF COMBINATION OF AZITHROMYCIN AND BENZOYL PEROXIDE BY RP-HPLC USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT AS PER ICH GUIDELINE 2019-04-16T11:37:25+00:00 Narendra Singh Yogendra Singh R. S. Bhadauria Jeyabalan Govindasamy <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>A simple, fast, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method were developed and validated for the estimation of Azithromycin &amp; Benzoyl peroxide per ICH guidelines. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate and Acetonitrile (50:50) are commonly used as solvents. The method was developed in Eclipse C18 column (Waters XTerra®, 4.6Χ250 mm, particle 5μ) with Potassium dihydrogen phosphate and Acetonitrile are commonly used solvents in RP -HPLC having low UV cut- off of 200-400 nm respectively. In RP-HPLC method was found to be linear in the range of Azithromycin/Benzoyl peroxide is 1-5μg/ml with a correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The accuracy studies of RP-HPLC method was performed at three different levels, i.e., 80%, 100%. The limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) for Azithromycin 0.009μg/ml &amp; 0.028μg/ml and for Benzoyl peroxide 0.015μg/ml &amp; 0.046μg/ml is to be were found. The Percentage RSD should not be more than 2 which indicate the accuracy and precision of the method. Hence the method was robust.Thus this shows that the method is capable to give a good detector response, the recovery calculated was within the range of 98% to 101% of the specification limits. Hence the method was a rapid tool for routine analysis of Azithromycin/Benzoyl peroxide in the bulk and in the pharmaceutical dosage form.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##