Risk Factors Of Osteoarthritis Knee-A Hospital Based Cross-Sectional Study
Keywords:Osteoarthritis, BMI, arthroplasty
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA), commonly known as osteoarthrosis, is a long-term chronic disability disease characterized by the deterioration of the cartilage in joints which results in bones rubbing together and creating stiffness, pain, and impaired movement. About 100 million people suffer from OA, and it is ranked as the eighth leading cause of disability. Worldwide estimates are that 9.6% of men and 18.0% of women aged over 60 years have symptomatic osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of six months from January 2020 to June 2020.All patients in the age group of 40-65 years and confirmed both clinically and radiologically for OA attending Orthopaedics OPD were included in the study. Patients below the age of 40 years and above the age of 65 years were not included in the study. Also, the patients with recent trauma with considerable tissue damage, patients with terminal conditions, alcohol abuse, psychiatric disorder, and previous/ planned arthroplasty were excluded from the study. After obtaining informed consent, study subjects were interviewed, and data were recorded on a standardized predesigned and a pre-tested questionnaire.Results: A total of 204 subjects were enrolled in the study, of whom 70 (34.3%) were males, and 134 (65.7%) were females. Table no. 1 shows that the majority of them, 52 (25.5%), were in the age group of 55-59 years. Only a quarter of study subjects, 52 (25.5%), had a positive family history of OA. Of these, men (37.1%) had a higher percentage of family history compared to women (19.4%). This difference was not statistically significant (x2=3.81 at df=1 and p>0.05). Most of the women, 110 (82.1%), were homemakers, while the majority of the men in study 34 (48.6%) were unskilled workers. Most of the study subjects, 192 (94.2%), belonged to the Hindu religion. 152 (74.5%) of the study subjects were literates. Most of them belonged to the nuclear type of family 130 (63.7%).Conclusion: OA is a major public health problem, especially in people after the age of 50 years. In our study, we observed that there is a relationship between age, sex, and BMI with OA. Family history, occupational knee bending, and history of knee injury were less prevalent in our study. The number of people with OA increased as the age increased; hence it is likely that if preventive measures can be taken in the earlier age groups, OA can be prevented.
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