Impact of maternal physical activities, rest, sleep, paternal education and addiction as determinants of low birth weight in India: a single hospital survey in Madhya Pradesh
Keywords:Newborn, low birth weight (LBW), normal birth weight (NBW), physical activity, antepartum bed rest, India
Background: Birthweight continues to be the leading infant health indicator and the main focus of infant health policy. Low birthweight babies are at a higher risk of mortality and morbidity in most low-income countries. However, the physical activity level of pregnant women and its association with low birthweight is not well studied in India, especially Central India. Materials & Methods: About 1000 live newborns on 1st day of birth and their mothers were studied from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Intensive neonatal care, Department of Pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January 2016 to December 2019. Examinations of mother and newborns were carefully carried out in all cases recorded on a pretested and predesigned proforma. Results: Mothers, who were advised bed rest for any of the cause, gave birth to more number of LBW babies. Among the women who were working outside beside the routine household work, the unskilled workers had more of LBW babies while skilled workers had less number of LBW babies. This was statistically very highly significant. About 503 mothers who took rest in the afternoon of 1-2 hrs, 377 of them (75%) gave birth to NBW babies. Rest more than 1-2 hrs, showed similar results. About 300 mothers who could not take post lunch rest in the afternoon 83% of them gave birth to LBW babies. This was statistically very highly significant. The number of LBW babes was more with paternal literacy of higher secondary or more than that. The difference was much marked in babies whose fathers were technically educated. This was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: Mothers educated till Primary School and unskilled workers had higher prevalence of LBW babies. However after graduation in both parents, the LBW and prematurity increased after showing reduction with Higher Secondary education. Socioeconomic factors reflected on maternal health. Our study demonstrated that both maternal and paternal factors could affect birth weight. The assumption that antepartum bed-rest treatment is effective in preventing preterm birth and preventing fetal growth restriction or birth weight.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Anuradha Jain, Swati Joshi, Saurabh Kumar Chhotelal Jain, Unique Sagar, Vimalkant Jain
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