Mortality characteristics of the second wave of COVID 19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital in Manipur, India: A retrospective study


  • Heisnam Kulabidhu Singh Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, JNIMS, Manipur, India
  • Wangkhem Jibol Singh Assistant Professor cum Biostatistician, Department of Community Medicine, JNIMS, Manipur, India
  • Banikanta Sharma Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics, JNIMS, Manipur, India


Comorbidities, COVID 19 pandemic, Mortality rate, Recovery rate, Second wave


Introduction: The second wave of COVID 19 pandemic reached Manipur in April 2021. For effective policy planning in JNIMS which was the sole government-run tertiary level care in the state by the government as well by the authority, the necessity to understand the mortality pattern and its backgrounds for the patients was felt. Aims & objectives: A study was taken up to explore into key areas like recovery rate, mortality rate and also the age and sex distribution, referral status, presenting features, delay in seeking healthcare, vitals at admission, comorbidities, hospital stay and vaccination status of the expired patients. The study also aimed to analyze the weekly changing pattern of all the COVID deaths. Material & methods: A hospital-based retrospective study was done by using hospital records of all COVID-19 patients admitted during Apr-Nov 2019. Data of COVID 19 positive patients were collected by using data abstraction form starting from admission until the end-point of either discharged or transferred out to non-COVID wards for post-COVID complications or died. It had sections on socio-demographic profile, referral status from other health centers, delay in seeking health care, presenting features and vitals at admission, comorbidities, vaccination status and hospital stay before the person died. Results: 4,293 patients were admitted during the study period. The recovery rate was 51.2% while the mortality rate was found to be 14.5%. Maximum death occurred among males of geriatric age group. Main presenting features of the deceased cases were shortness of breath (78.1%), Fever (53.1%) and Cough (41.3%). A total of 195 (38.2%) deaths occurred among patients who were admitted within three days of developing the serious symptoms of shortness of breath and/or altered sensorium. Nearly two-thirds (63.7%) of the deceased persons had comorbidities notably hypertension (58.3%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (46.8%). Only 6.8% had a SpO2 of 90 or more at room air at admission. Nearly a quarter of all the deaths (22.5%) happened on the day of admission. Almost all the cases (561; 90.2%) were not vaccinated at al.




How to Cite

Heisnam Kulabidhu Singh, Wangkhem Jibol Singh, & Banikanta Sharma. (2021). Mortality characteristics of the second wave of COVID 19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital in Manipur, India: A retrospective study. International Journal of Health and Clinical Research, 4(23), 176–179. Retrieved from