A clinico-histopathological study of lichen planus
Keywords:Lichen planus, Hyperkeratosis, Focal hypergranulosis.
Introduction: Lichen planus (LP) is a common papulosquamous inflammatory condition that affects the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes and is associated with a course of relapsing and remitting.Aims: To study the clinical profile and histopathological association of lichen planus.Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study consisted of 54 patients who visited outpatient clinic at our Katakam Skin Clinic, Kothawada, Warangal, Telangana. A brief history and comprehensive clinical review were conducted on the patients, which was documented. Both male and female patients aged between18-65 years clinically diagnosed of Lichen Planus are included in study. In all cases, skin biopsies from representative areas were taken and subjected to a thorough histopathological examination. Results:33 of the total 54 cases were males and 21 were females, respectively. Males with a male: female ratio of 3:2 are more popular. Most of the individuals in the sample was 35-44 years old with 16 cases 30% followed by 25-34 years with 11 cases 20%. Of the 54 cases, 38 (70.4%) were classical lichen planus cases, 11 (20.3%) were Lichen planus hypertrophicus cases, 3 (5.5%) were Lichen planus actinicus cases, 1 (1.8%) each was Lichen planopilaris and Oral lichen planus cases. Hyperkeratosis (100 percent), focal hypergranulosis (80 percent), and acanthosis (95 percent) with toothing of rete ridges (80 percent) and basal cell liquefaction were characterised by epidermal changes (100 percent ). In all cases, pigment incontinence was seen in the superficial dermis in the form of melanophages (100 percent ). Just 37 percent of cases had Civatte bodies seen. They have been seen in the lower epidermis and papillary dermis as round, eosinophilic bodies.Conclusion:. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to prevent wide spread involvement and differentiate from other skin lesions. Treatment options depend on disease severity interms of symptoms and extent of involvement.