Association Between Maternal Periodontal Status and Pre Term Low Birth Weight Babies: A Retrospective Clinical Case Control Study
Keywords:Maternal health, Periodontal status, Preterm birth, Low birth weight, Community Periodontal Index
Introduction: In reducing the risk for pregnancy-related complications like preterm birth and preeclampsia, maternal health is recognized as an important determinant. In the developing countries as well as developed countries, low birth weight (LBW) and preterm (PTB) delivery are considered to be highly relevant biological determinants for new born infant survival. As per definition,Preterm birth (PTB) delivery is stated as delivery before 37 weeks of gestation and low birth weight (LBW), is a birth weight of less than 2,500 grams.Aims and Objectives: To assess maternal periodontal status among preterm and / or low birth weight and normal birth weight groups to determine if it is a risk factor for low birth weight infants. Material and Methods: A case control study design was chosen involving total 100 pregnant mothers, 50 mothers with presence of periodontal disease with CPI Score 3 in the case group and 50 mothers with CPI Score 1 or 2 in the control group. Our first definition of case and a control was based on the maternal periodontal status. All mothers after screening were categorized into a case group and control group. Results: This study indicated a 4.66 fold increase in PTLBW in cases of periodontal infection with CPI score 3 in comparison to periodontal infection with CPI score 1 or 2. Many Other workers reported a 4.5 to 7 fold increase in incidence of PTLBW in cases of periodontitis with CPI score 3. The important observation which was found in this study was related to the illiteracy of the mother which plays a strong role in causation of periodontal disease as well as to PTLBW.Discussion: The overall importance of periodontal therapy during pregnancy is minimal, but that a threshold level may exist during gestation where the presence of periodontal diseases may have a much more significant effect on a baby’s birth weight. Preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) are the leading perinatal problems worldwide and have evident public health implications, as they are closely related to perinatal mortality and morbidity.According to the Perinatal Oral Health Consensus, diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases as well as their prevention, which may require dental radioFigs and local anaesthesia, are beneficial if commenced during pregnancy, as well as they do not pose any additional foetal or maternal risk as compared to the risk when no care is provided.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Dhanesh Singh Rao, Tarun Gaur, Atul Ashok Jadhav, Manish Kumar, Syed Monjur Elahi, Dushyant Pal Singh
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