Prevalence Of Anemia And Its Characteristic Among Children Between Age Of 6 Months To 12 Years: Report From A Tertiary Care Center Of Bihar
Introduction: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in pregnant women and young children. Approximately 50% of the population suffers from nutritional anemia as known in countries where meat consumption is low. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the magnitude of anemia. Methodology: The current cross-sectional study was conducted by the Department of pediatrics, Patna Medical College & Hospital, Bihar. The study encompasses 100 pediatric patients admitted during the study period from August 2012 to January 2013 between the ages of 6 months to 12 years. All children and their parents were informed about the purpose and the method of the research and the voluntary nature of participation in the study verbally and in written form. A total of 2 mL of venous blood was drawn under aseptic precautions in an ethylene diamine tetra acetate containing vacutainer. Peripheral blood smear after staining with Leishman's stain was examined under binocular microscope for count and morphology of RBC, WBC, platelets. Special investigations like electrophoresis, sickling test, bone marrow aspiration were done wherever needed. Results: Out of the 100 hemograms analyzed, 69 depicted anemic status. Infants (6 months-1 year) were found to be most commonly affected constituting to one-third, followed by school-going children (6 years-12 years), toddlers (2 years-3 years), and preschool children (4 years-5 years). Out of 69 anemic patients, majority had nonhemoglobinopathies and only 2 had hemoglobinopathies. Bone marrow examination could be done on 10 anemic children. Out of which, five children showed micronormoblastic maturation followed by three children had megaloblastic maturation, one child had normoblastic maturation, and another child had hypoproliferative bone marrow. Both the children with hemoglobinopathies were diagnosed with Thalassemia major. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to initiate specific public health action to prevent anemia considering the grave consequences of anemia and iron deficiency on the physical and mental growth and development of these children and on their long-term health.
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