Evaluating the risk factors correlated with low-birth-weight babies: A clinical case control study
Keywords:Birth weight, Low birth weight, Maternal risk factor, Preterm,Risk factors.
Background: A most vital determinant for survival in newborns and healthy development and growth is the birth weight (weight at the birth). Determination of risk factors that can lead to low birth weight in newborns is vital to avoid such cases. Aim: The present clinical case-control study was conducted to assess the risk factors correlated with low-birth-weight (LBW) babies among the females. Material and methods: The present case-control clinical study included 60 females who delivered low-birth-weight infants and singleton babies which were compared to 60 control females having singleton babies having normal birth weight to assess the associated risk factors. Results: Morbid condition during pregnancy had Odds ratio (OR) of 1.43 and 95% CI of 1.18-1.95 which was significant with p<0.05. BMI has also had a significant association with OR of 1.57 and 95% CI of 1.16-2.13. Birth interval <24 months, Weight <40kg, Height <145cm, Rural Residence, and unfavorable previous pregnancy outcomes all showed significant association with low-birth-weight in the study subjects, with p<0.05, OR of 1.66, 1.84, 1.91, 2.17, and 2.49 respectively, and 95% CI of 1.25-2.19, 1.17-2.95, 1.34-2.94, 1.61-2.59, and 1.73-3.83 respectively. Calcium supplementation, iron/folic acid supplementation (<100 vs <100), tetanus toxoid immunization, ANC visit, registration time, maternal tobacco consumption, marital age of mother, mother's rest and sleep, and socioeconomic status showed significant association with the low-birth-weight with p<0.05 and z2 of 1.17, 2.55, 0.68, 1.77, 0.07, 3.53, 1.55, 0.31and 5.57 respectively. However, no significant association was seen between low-birth-weight and maternal occupation and maternal education with respective p-values of 0.08 and 0.66 and the z2 of 1.11 and 7.79 respectively. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a strong and significant correlation was seen of prenatal care and bio-demographic variables for the determination of the birth weight in an infant. Also, demographics and socio-economic factors have a significant correlation with prenatal care which is the behavioral factor that can be correlated with the low-birth-weight in infants.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Deepa Dinesh Joshi, Chandrakant Kundlikrao Survase, Rahul Gautam Koppikar
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